ABSORPTION - The movement of a chemical into plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms, or soil.
ACARICIDE - A pesticide used to control mites and ticks. A miticide is a type of acaricide.
ACETYLCHOLINE - The primary chemical responsible for the transmission of nerve stimuli across the synapse of two neurons or to the muscle.
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - Charcoal which when finely ground adsorbs liquids and gases.
ACTIVATOR - An adjuvant added to a pesticide to increase its toxicity.
ACTIVE INGREDIENT - The chemical or chemicals in a product responsible for pesticidal activity.
ACUTE EFFECTS - The harmful effects that occur from a single exposure to a pesticide by any route of entry.
ACUTE TOXICITY - The capacity of a pesticide to cause injury from a single exposure. LD50 and LC50 are common indicators of the degree of acute toxicity. (See Chronic Toxicity)
ADHERENCE - The property of a substance to stick to a given surface.
ADJUVANT - A substance added to a pesticide to improve its effectiveness or safety. Same as additive. Examples are penetrants, spreader-stickers, and wetting agents.
ADSORPTION - The process by which chemicals are held or bound to a surface by physical or chemical attraction. Clay and high organic soils tend to adsorb pesticides.
ADULTERATED PESTICIDE - A pesticide that does not conform to the professed standard or quality as documented on its label or labeling.
AEROSOL - A material stored in a container under pressure. An extremely fine mist is produced when the material, dissolved in a liquid, is released into the air from the pressurized container.
AGITATION - Process of stirring or mixing in a sprayer.
AIR-PURIFYING RESPIRATORS - A type of protection from pesticides that uses physical and chemical filters to trap and remove contaminants as they pass through the device before being breathed by the wearer. These may be powered or non-powered.
AIR-SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS - A type of protection from pesticides that provides clean, uncontaminated air from an outside source.
ALGAE - Relatively simple plants that contain chlorophyll and are photosynthetic.
ALGAECIDE (ALGICIDE) - A pesticide used to kill or inhibit algae.
ANNUAL - A plant that completes its life cycle in one year.
ANTAGONISM - The reduction of pesticide activity when two or more different pesticides are mixed together.
ANTIBIOTIC - A microorganism-produced chemical that is toxic to other microorganisms. Examples are streptomycin, cycloheximide, and penicillin.
ANTICOAGULANT - A chemical that prevents normal blood clotting. The active ingredient in some rodenticides.
ANTIDOTE - A practical treatment used to counteract the effects of pesticide poisoning or some other poison in the body.
ANTI-SIPHONING DEVICE - A hose attachment designed to prevent backflow into a water source. Used to prevent the flow of pesticide mixes from spray tanks.
ANTI-TRANSPIRANT - A chemical applied to a plant to reduce the rate of transpiration or water loss.
AQUIFER - A permeable zone of rock, sand, gravel, or limestone below the earth surface saturated with water.
ARACHNID - A wingless arthropod with two body regions and four pairs of jointed legs. Examples are spiders, ticks, and mites.
ARTHROPOD - An invertebrate animal characterized by a jointed body and limbs and usually a hard body covering that is molted at intervals. Examples are insects, mites, and crayfish.
ATROPINE (ATROPINE SULFATE) - An antidote used to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.
ATTRACTANT - A substance or device to lure insects or other pests to a trap or poison bait.
AVICIDE - A chemical used to kill or repel birds.
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BACTERIA - Microscopic organisms, some of which are capable of producing diseases in plants and animals.
BACTERICIDE - A chemical used to control bacteria.
BAIT - A food or other substance used to attract a pest to a pesticide or trap where it will be destroyed.
BAND APPLICATION - Application of a pesticide or other material in or beside a crop row rather than over the entire field area. (See Broadcast Application)
BASAL APPLICATION - Application to plant stems or trunks at or just above ground.
BENEFICIAL INSECT - An insect that is useful or helpful to humans. Examples are pollinators, parasites, and predators of pests.
BIENNIAL - A plant that completes its life cycle in two years.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL - A pest management strategy that uses predators, parasites, and disease-causing organisms. May be naturally occurring or introduced.
BIOMAGNIFICATION - The process where some organisms accumulate chemical residues in higher concentrates than those found in the organisms they consume.
BOTANICAL PESTICIDE - A pesticide produced from chemicals found in plants. Examples are nicotine, pyrethrum, and strychnine.
BRAND NAME - The name, number, or designation of a specific pesticide product or device made by a manufacturer or formulator.
BROADCAST APPLICATION - The uniform application of a pesticide or other material over an entire field or area.
BROADLEAF PLANTS - Plants with broad, rounded, or flattened leaves with netted veins such as dandelions and roses.
BROAD-SPECTRUM PESTICIDE - A pesticide that is effective against a wide range of pests. Usually refers to insecticides and fungicides.
BUFFERS - Adjuvants used to retard chemical degradation of some pesticides by lowering the pH of alkaline water.
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CALIBRATE, CALIBRATION - To adjust equipment according to the amount of material applied to a target area.
CARBAMATES - A group of pesticides containing nitrogen, formulated as insecticides (Sevin, Furadan, Lannate), fungicides (Mancozeb, Maneb), and herbicides (IPC, CIPC).
CARCINOGENIC - The ability of a substance or agent to induce malignant tumors (cancer).
CARRIER - 1) An inert liquid, solid, or gas added to an active ingredient to make a pesticide formulation. 2) The material, usually water or oil, used to dilute the formulated product for application.
CAUSAL ORGANISMS - The organism (pathogen) that produces a given disease.
CHEMICAL CONTROL - A pest management strategy that involves the use of naturally derived or synthetic chemicals that kill, attract, repel, or otherwise control the growth of pest plants, animals, and microorganisms. Examples are avicides, insecticides, and rodenticides.
CHEMICAL DEGRADATION - The breakdown of a pesticide by processes not involving a living organism.
CHEMICAL NAME - The scientific name of the active ingredient(s) found in the formulated product. This complex name is derived from the chemical structure of the active ingredient.
CHEMIGATION - The application of fertilizers or pesticides to soil or plants by inclusion in irrigation water.
CHEMOSTERILANT - A chemical compound capable of preventing animal reproduction.
CHEMTREC - The Chemical Transportation Emergency Center, which has a toll-free number (1-800-262-8200) that provides 24-hour information for chemical emergencies such as spills, leaks, fires, or accidents.
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON - A pesticide containing chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen. Many are persistent in the environment. Examples are chlordane, DDT, and methoxychlor.
CHLOROSIS - The yellowing of a plant’s normally green tissue.
CHOLINESTERASE - A chemical catalyst (enzyme) found in animals that regulates the activity of nerve impulses.
CHRONIC TOXICITY - The ability of a material to cause injury from repeated, prolonged exposure to small amounts. (See Acute Toxicity)
COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for an owner or head of a business that commercially applies pesticides on lands of another.
COMMERCIAL CONSULTANT - A type of applicator certification or license for a salesperson who offers technical advice or recommendations to pesticide users.
COMMERCIAL OPERATOR - A type of certification or license for an employee of a commercial applicator to supervise or apply pesticides on lands of another.
COMMON NAME - A name given to a pesticides active ingredient by a recognized committee on pesticide nomenclature. Many pesticides are known by a number of trade or brand names, but the active ingredient(s) has only one recognized common name (e.g., the common name for Sevin insecticide is carbaryl).
COMPATIBILITY AGENTS - Adjuvants used to enhance the effective mixing of two or more different pesticide products and/or fertilizers.
COMPATIBLE - Chemicals that can be mixed without reducing the effectiveness of any individual chemical.
COMPLETE WDO INSPECTION REPORTS - Usually completed prior to home sales, and contain information about the presence of WDOs, damage, and conditions conducive to infestations.
CONCENTRATION - The amount of active ingredient in a given volume or weight of formulated product.
CONTACT HERBICIDE - A chemical that kills primarily by contact with plant tissue, with little or no translocation.
CONTACT INSECTICIDE - A compound that causes death or injury to insects upon contact. It does not need to be ingested to be toxic to the insect.
CONTAMINATION - The presence of an unwanted substance in or on a plant, animal, soil, water, air, or structure. (See Residue)
CORROSIVE POISON - A poison containing a strong acid or base which will severely burn the skin, mouth, stomach, etc.
CULTURAL CONTROL - A pest management strategy that involves the manipulation of the environment to avert serious pest damage. Examples are crop rotation and pruning.
CURATIVE PESTICIDE - A pesticide which can inhibit or kill a disease-causing organism after it is established in the plant or animal.
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DAYS TO HARVEST - The minimum number of days permitted by law between the last pesticide application and the harvest date. (Same as Preharvest Interval)
DAYS TO SLAUGHTER - The minimum number of days permitted by law between the last pesticide application and the date the animal is slaughtered.
DEALER-MANAGER - A type of certification or license for an owner or employee of a business that distributes pesticides (other than for home or garden use) in a store or outlet.
DECONTAMINATE - To remove or break down a pesticide chemical from a surface or substance.
DEFOLIANT - A chemical that initiates the premature drop of leaves.
DEGRADATION - The process by which a chemical compound is broken down to a simpler compound by the action of microorganisms, water, air, sunlight, or other agents. Degradation products are usually, but not always, less toxic than the original compound.
DEMONSTRATION AND RESEARCH - A type of applicator certification or license for an individual who applies experimental or restricted use pesticides for research purposes under state or federal “Experimental Use Permits.”
DEPOSIT - The amount of pesticide on the treated surface after application.
DERMAL TOXICITY - The ability of a pesticide to cause injury to a human or animal when absorbed through the skin.
DESICCANT - A chemical that promotes drying or loss of moisture from a leaf or other plant part.
DETOXIFY - To render a pesticides active ingredient or other poisonous chemical harmless.
DIAGNOSIS - The positive identification of a problem and its cause.
DILUENT - Any liquid or solid material used to dilute.
DIP - Complete or partial immersion of a plant or object in a pesticide.
DISINFECTANT - 1)A chemical or other agent that kills or inactivates disease-producing microorganisms in animals, seeds, or other plant parts. 2) Chemicals used to clean or surface-sterilize inanimate objects.
DISPERSING AGENT - An adjuvant that facilitates mixing and suspension of a pesticide formulation in water.
DORMANT SPRAY - A pesticide application to plants made in late winter or early spring prior to the resumption of active growth.
DOSE, DOSAGE - Quantity of pesticide applied to a given area or target.
DRIFT - The airborne movement of pesticide spray droplets, dusts, or vapors beyond the intended contact area.
DRIFT RETARDANT - An adjuvant added to a spray mixture to reduce drift.
DUST - A finely ground, dry pesticide formulation containing a small amount of active ingredient and a large amount of inert carrier or diluent such as clay or talc.
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ECONOMIC INJURY LEVEL - The pest population density that causes losses equal to the cost of control measures.
ECONOMIC THRESHOLD - The level or density of a pest population where control measures need to be applied to prevent the pest from reaching the economic injury level.
EMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE - A pesticide formulation produced by dissolving the active ingredient and an emulsifying agent in a suitable solvent. When added to water, a milky emulsion is formed.
EMULSIFYING AGENT (EMULSIFIER) - A chemical that aids in the suspension of one liquid in another which normally would not mix together.
EMULSION - A mixture of two liquids that are not soluble in one another. One is suspended as very small droplets in the other with the aid of an emulsifying agent. Oil in water is an example.
ENCAPSULATED PESTICIDE - 1) A pesticide formulation with the active ingredient enclosed in capsules of polyvinyl or other synthetic materials; principally used for slow release. 2) A method of disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers by sealing them in a sturdy, water proof container to prevent leakage.
ENDANGERED SPECIES - Individual plants or animals with a population that has been reduced to the extent that it is near extinction.
ENVIRONMENT - All the features that surround and affect an organism or group of organisms.
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency. The federal agency responsible for implementing pesticide rules and regulations and registering pesticides.
EPA ESTABLISHMENT NUMBER - A number assigned to each pesticide production plant by EPA. The number indicates the plant at which the pesticide product was produced and must appear on all labels of that product.
EPA REGISTRATION NUMBER - A number assigned to a pesticide product by EPA when the product is registered by the manufacturer or the designated agent. The number must appear on all labels for a particular product.
ERADICANT - A chemical or other agent such as steam or heat used to eliminate an established pest from a plant, animal, or specific area such as soil, water, or buildings.
ERADICATION - The complete elimination of a pest from a site.
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FETOTOXIC - The ability of a substance to cause harm to a developing fetus, but not necessarily cause deformities. (See Teratogenic)
FIELD SCOUT - A person who samples fields for pest infestations.
FIFRA - The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; a federal law dealing with pesticide regulations and use.
FIT CHECK - A positive or negative-type pressure test conducted by a pesticide handler wearing a respirator to ensure the device forms a complete seal around the face and air cannot leak in or out along the edges. Also called a USER SEAL CHECK.
FIT FACTOR - The ratio between the dust concentration in the surrounding air and that inside a respirator.
FLOWABLE - A pesticide formulation in which a very finely ground solid particle is suspended (not dissolved) in a liquid carrier.
FOAM RETARDANT - An adjuvant used to reduce the foaming of a spray mixture that results from agitation.
FOAMING AGENT - An adjuvant designed to reduce drift by causing a pesticide mix to form a thick foam.
FOG TREATMENT - The application of a pesticide as a fine mist or fog.
FOOD CHAIN - Sequence of species within a community, each member of which serves as a food source for the species next higher in the chain.
FORECASTING - The prediction of pest incidence using weather, host, and pathogen characteristics.
FORMULATION - The pesticide product as purchased, containing a mixture of one or more active ingredients, carriers (inert ingredients), and other additives diluted for safety and ease of application.
FUMIGANT - A pesticide that forms gases that are toxic to plants and animals when absorbed or inhaled.
FUNGI (PLURAL OF FUNGUS) - Nonchlorophyll-bearing plants, living as saprophytes or parasites. Some infect and cause diseases in plants, animals, and humans or destroy wood and fiber products such as rusts, mildews, molds, and smuts. Others are beneficial, such as decomposers and human food sources.
FUNGICIDE - A chemical used to control fungi.
FUNGISTATIC AGENT - A chemical that prevents the germination of fungus spores or the growth of mycelium, but does not kill the fungus.
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GENERAL USE PESTICIDE - A pesticide that can be purchased and used by the general public. Also called unclassified use pesticide. (See Restricted Use Pesticide)
GENETIC CONTROL­ - A pest management strategy that involves the use of plants and animals that are resistant to attack by pests. Includes traditional breeding techniques and contemporary gene manipulation to create host plant resistance to insects and diseases.
GERMINATION - The sprouting of a seed or production of a germ tube (mycelium) from a fungus spore.
GPA - Gallons per acre.
GPM - Gallons per minute.
GRANULE - A dry pesticide formulation. The active ingredient is either mixed with or coated onto an inert carrier to form a small, ready-to-use, low-concentrate particle that does not normally present a drift hazard. Pellets differ from granules only in their precise uniformity, larger size, and shape.
GROUNDWATER - Water sources located beneath the soil surface from which well water is obtained or surface springs are formed.
GROWTH REGULATOR - A chemical that alters the growth processes of a plant or animal.
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HANDLERS - Employees who handle pesticide products or have high exposure potential. Examples are mixers, applicators, and flaggers, and equipment repair persons.
HARVEST AID CHEMICAL - Material applied to a plant prior to harvest to reduce the amount of plant foliage. (See Defoliant)
HAZARD - The potential for injury or degree of danger involved in using a pesticide under a given set of circumstances. Depends on both the toxicity of the pesticide and the chance of exposure to harmful amounts of the chemical.
HEMOTOXIC - The ability of a substance or agent to cause blood disorders.
HERBACEOUS PLANTS - Plants that do not develop woody tissues.
HERBICIDE - A pesticide used to kill or inhibit plant growth.
HOST - A plant or animal on or in which a pest lives.
HYDROLYSIS - Breakdown of a chemical in the presence of water.
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ILLEGAL RESIDUE - A quantity of pesticide remaining on a crop at harvest that is either above the set tolerance or not allowed on the crop. Also pertains to residues in livestock.
INCOMPATIBLE - Two or more materials that cannot be mixed or used together without creating precipitates or losing their effectiveness.
INERT INGREDIENT - An inactive material in a pesticide formulation that does not have pesticidal activity.
INGREDIENT STATEMENT - The portion of the label on a pesticide container that gives the name and amount of each active ingredient and total amount of inert ingredients in the formulation.
INHALATION - Taking in through the lungs; breathing in.
INHALATION TOXICITY - The property of a pesticide to be poisonous to humans or animals when breathed in through the lungs.
INOCULUM - That portion of a pathogen that can cause disease in a host.
INSECTICIDE - A pesticide used to control or prevent damage caused by insects.
INSECTS - Arthropods characterized by a body composed of three segments and three pairs of legs.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT - The use of all suitable pest control methods to keep pest populations below the economic injury level. Methods include cultural practices, use of biological, physical, and genetic control agents, and the selective use of pesticides.
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L&I - Department of Labor and Industries. A Washington State agency that regulates employee safety issues, worker right-to-know regulations, Worker Protection Standards and cholinesterase monitoring.
LABEL - All printed material attached to or part of a pesticide container.
LABELING - Supplemental pesticide information that complements the information on the label, but is not necessarily attached to or part of the container.
LARVAE (PLURAL OF LARVA) - The immature form of an insect or other animal that hatches from an egg.
LC50 - The concentration of a pesticide, usually in air or water, which can kill 50 percent of a test population of animals. LC50 is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm). The lower the LC50 value, the more acutely toxic the chemical.
LD50 - The dose or amount of a pesticide that can kill 50 percent of a test population of animals when eaten or absorbed through the skin. LD50 is expressed in milligrams of chemical per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (mg/kg). The lower the LD50, the more acutely toxic the chemical.
LEACHING - The movement of a substance through soil with water.
LEGAL CONTROL - A pest management strategy that limits the development of pest populations by restricting human activities. Examples are federal and state inspection and quarantine laws.
LIMITED PRIVATE APPLICATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for an individual to apply or supervise restricted use herbicides on non-production agricultural land and in mixed rangeland-timber areas to control weeds designated for mandatory control.
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MECHANICAL CONTROL - A pest management strategy that employs devices to prevent the spread or reduce the infestation of pests, primarily insects, and vertebrate animals. Examples are hand destruction, traps, and fences.
METABOLITE - A compound derived from changes in the active ingredient through chemical, biological, or physical reactions. The metabolite may be simpler, more complex, more poisonous, or less poisonous than the original chemical.
METAMORPHOSIS - A change in the shape, size, and/or form of an animal.
MICROBIAL DEGRADATION - Breakdown of a chemical by microorganisms.
MICROBIAL PESTICIDE - Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms used to control pests. Also called biorationals.
MICROORGANISM - An organism that is so small it cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope.
MISCIBLE LIQUIDS - Two or more liquids that can be mixed and will remain mixed under most conditions. Water and ethyl alcohol are miscible; water and oil are not.
MITE - A small arthropod similar to an insect but with eight legs. Its body is divided into two parts and has no antennae.
MITICIDE - A pesticide used to control mites; synonymous with acaricide.
MODE OF ACTION - The way in which a pesticide exerts a toxic effect on a target plant or animal.
MOLLUSCICIDE - A chemical used to control snails and slugs.
MUTAGENIC - The ability of a substance or agent to cause genetic changes in living cells.
MYCELIUM - The mass of filaments that form the body of a fungus.
MYCOPLASMA - A microorganism possessing many virus-like properties. Some cause plant diseases.
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NECROSIS - Death of plant or animal tissues resulting in the formation of discolored, sunken, or necrotic (dead) areas.
NEGATIVE PRESSURE CHECK - A type of fit test in which the user breathes in and exerts negative pressure on the respirator to ensure there is no leakage.
NEMATICIDE - A pesticide used to control nematodes.
NEMATODES - Microscopic, colorless, worm-like animals that live as saprophytes or parasites. Many cause plant or animal diseases.
NEUROTOXIC - The ability of a substance or agent to cause disorders of the nervous system.
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The federal agency responsible for testing and certifying respirators used in conjunction with pesticides.
NONPERSISTENT PESTICIDE - A pesticide that does not remain active in the environment more than one growing season.
NONSELECTIVE PESTICIDE - A pesticide that is toxic to a wide range of plants or animals without regard to species. For example, a nonselective herbicide can kill or damage all plants it contacts.
NONTARGET ORGANISM - Any plant or animal other than the intended target(s) of a pesticide application.
NOXIOUS WEED - A plant defined by law as being particularly troublesome, undesirable, and difficult to control.
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ONCOGENIC - The property to produce tumors (not necessarily cancerous) in living tissues. (See Carcinogenic)
ORAL TOXICITY - Ability of a pesticide to cause injury when taken by mouth.
ORGANOPHOSPHATES - A large group of pesticides that contain the element phosphorus. Most are nonpersistent insecticides/miticides. Many are highly toxic. Examples are malathion, parathion, and diazinon.
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A federal agency that regulates worker safety issues.
OVICIDE - A material that destroys eggs.
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PARASITE - A plant, animal, or microorganism living in, on, or with another living organism for the purpose of obtaining all or part of its food.
PATHOGEN - A disease-causing organism.
PENETRANT - An adjuvant added to a spray mixture to enhance the absorption of a pesticide.
PERENNIAL - A plant that lives for more than two years.
PERSISTENT HERBICIDE - An herbicide that when applied at the label rate will remain in the soil, often for years. Potentially harmful to subsequently planted plants. (See Residual Pesticide)
PERSISTENT PESTICIDE - A pesticide chemical (or its metabolites) that remains active in the environment more than one growing season. These compounds sometimes accumulate in animal and plant tissues. Examples are DDT, chlordane, and dieldrin.
PEST - An undesirable organism (e.g., insect, fungus, nematode, weed, virus, or rodent) injurious to humans, desirable plants and animals, manufactured products, or natural products.
PESTICIDE - A chemical or other agent used to kill or otherwise control pests, or protect from a pest.
PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS - Mixtures of active and inert ingredients. Make an active ingredient more convenient to handle; safer, easier, and more accurate to apply; and in some cases more attractive to the pest. Examples are emulsifiable concentrates, water-dispersible granules, and fumigants.
PH - A measure of the acidity/alkalinity of a liquid; acid below pH 7, basic or alkaline above pH 7.
PHEROMONE - A substance emitted by an animal to influence the behavior of other animals of the same species. Some are synthetically produced for use in insect traps.
PHOTODEGRADATION - Breakdown of chemicals by the action of sunlight.
PHYTOTOXICITY - Injury to plants.
PIRT - Pesticide Incident Reporting and Tracking Review Panel. An advisory group that evaluates the handling of pesticide incidents.
PISCICIDE - A chemical used to control pest fish.
PLANT REMOVAL - The final pesticide transfer process after treated crops are harvested and transferred to a new location.
POINT OF RUNOFF - When a spray starts to run or drip from plant leaves and stems, animal hair or bird feathers.
POISON CONTROL CENTER - An agency, generally a hospital, which has current information as to the proper first aid techniques and antidotes for poisoning emergencies. Listed in telephone directories.
POSITIVE PRESSURE CHECK - A type of fit test in which the user breathes out and exerts positive pressure on the respirator to ensure there is no leakage.
POSTEMERGENCE - After the weed or crop plants have appeared through the soil. Usually used to specify the timing of herbicide applications.
POTENTIATION - When a pesticide becomes significantly more toxic following combination with another pesticide.
PPE - Personal protective clothing and equipment. Intended to protect a person from exposure during the handling and application of pesticides. Includes long-sleeved shirts, long trousers, coveralls, hats, gloves, shoes, and respirators.
PPM - Parts per million. A means to express amounts of chemicals in or on food, plants, animals, water, soil, or air. One part per million equals 1 pound in 500 tons. PPB is parts per billion.
PRECIPITATE - A solid substance that forms in a liquid and settles to the bottom of a container; a material that no longer remains in suspension.
PREDATOR - An animal that attacks, feeds on, and kills other animals. Examples are hawks, owls, snakes, fish, and many insects.
PREEMERGENCE - Before weeds or crop plants have appeared through the soil. Used to specify the timing of herbicide applications.
PREHARVEST INTERVALS - Same as days to harvest.
PREMIX - A pesticide product formulated with more than one active ingredient.
PREPLANT PESTICIDE - A pesticide applied prior to planting a crop.
PRIVATE APPLICATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for a land owner/lessee or employee who uses restricted use pesticides on cropland or associated agricultural non-cropland to produce agricultural commodities.
PRIVATE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for a land owner/lessee or their employee who uses restricted use pesticides for purposes other than producing agricultural commodities.
PROPELLANT - The inert ingredient in self-pressurized products that forces the active ingredient from the container. (See Aerosol)
PROTECTANT - A pesticide applied to a plant or animal prior to infection or attack by a pest in order to prevent infection or injury.
PROTECTION STANDARDS - Medical evaluations and training mandated by OSHA (according to 29 CFR 1910.134) for employers to ensure an employee’s ability to use a respirator before the employee is fit-tested or required to use the respirator in the workplace.
PUBLIC CONSULTANT - A type of certification or license for a government agency or utility company employee who offers technical advice or recommendations for pesticide use (other than for home or gardens) during the course of their employment.
PUBLIC OPERATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for a government agency or utility company employee who supervises or applies restricted use pesticides by any means or applies general-use pesticides by power equipment.
PUPA - The intermediate developmental stage of some insects between larva and adult.
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QUALITATIVE FIT TEST - A procedure whereby a pesticide handler wearing a respirator is exposed to various atmospheres and asked to breathe under various circumstances to determine if an odor or taste can be detected.
QUANTITATIVE FIT TEST - A procedure whereby a particle-counting instrument is used to measure respirator fit by comparing the dust concentration in the surrounding air with that inside the respirator.
QUARANTINE - Regulatory method to control the introduction and dissemination of plant and animal pests (e.g., animals, insects, weeds, and disease-causing organisms) into new areas. Involves inspections, treatments, and destruction of contaminated organisms or their parts.
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RANCHER PRIVATE APPLICATOR - A type of applicator certification or license for an individual to apply or supervise restricted use herbicides on non-production agricultural land and in mixed rangeland-timber areas to control weeds designated for mandatory control; can also do vertebrate control.
RATE OF APPLICATION - The amount of pesticide applied to a plant, animal, unit area, or surface; usually measured as per acre, per 1,000 square feet, per linear feet, or per cubic feet.
RCRA - The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. A federal law regulating the transport, storage, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes.
RECHARGE - Water that seeps through the soil from rain, melting snow, or irrigation sources.
REGISTERED PESTICIDES - Pesticide products that have been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency for the uses listed on the label.
REI - Restricted entry interval or reentry interval. The length of time following an application of a pesticide when a person is required to wear protective clothing and equipment in a treated field.
REPELLENT - A compound that keeps insects, rodents, birds, or other pests away from plants, domestic animals, buildings, or other treated areas.
RESIDUAL PESTICIDE - A pesticide that continues to remain effective on a treated surface or area for an extended period following application.
RESIDUE - A pesticide’s active ingredient or breakdown product(s) that remains in or on a target after treatment.
RESISTANT - 1) A population of organisms that are uninjured or unaffected by a certain dosage of pesticide chemical used to control other populations of the same organism successfully. 2) Plants and animals that are unaffected by a pest species. (See Tolerant)
RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE - A pesticide that can be purchased only by certified pesticide applicators and used only by certified applicators or persons directly under their supervision. Not available for use by the general public because of their high toxicities and/or environmental hazards.
RODENTICIDE - A pesticide used to control rodents.
R-T-U (RTU) - Ready to use product.
RUNOFF - The movement of water and associated materials on the soil surface.
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SAFENER - An adjuvant used to reduce the phytotoxic effects of a pesticide.
SAPROPHYTE - An organism that obtains its food from dead or decaying organic matter.
SEED PROTECTANT - A pesticide applied to seeds prior to planting to protect them from insects, fungi, and other soil pests.
SELECTIVE PESTICIDE - A pesticide that is toxic to some pests, but has little or no effect on other similar species. Some fungicides are so selective that they control only water-mold pathogens and no other fungi.
SERIAL APPLICATION - The application of one pesticide immediately or shortly after the application of another.
SIGNAL WORDS - Required word(s) that appear on pesticide labels to denote the relative toxicity of the product: DANGER-POISON used with a skull and crossbones symbol for highly toxic compounds, DANGER for skin and eye irritants, WARNING for moderately toxic, and CAUTION for slightly toxic compounds.
SILVICIDE - An herbicide used to destroy brush and trees such as in wooded areas.
SLURRY - A thick suspension of a pesticide made from a wettable powder and water.
SOIL DRENCH - To soak or wet the ground surface with a pesticide. Large volumes of a pesticide mixture are usually needed to saturate the soil to any depth.
SOIL INCORPORATION - The mechanical mixing of a pesticide product with soil.
SOIL INJECTION - The placement of a pesticide below the surface of the soil; common application method for fumigants and termiticides.
SOIL STERILANT - A chemical or agent that prevents the growth of all organisms present in the soil; a nonselective pesticide. Soil sterilization may be temporary or permanent depending on the chemical.
SOLUBLE POWDER - A finely ground dry pesticide formulation that will dissolve in water or some other liquid carrier.
SOLUTION - Mixture of one or more substances in another substance (usually a liquid) in which all the ingredients are completely dissolved. Sugar in water is an example.
SOLVENT - A liquid such as water, oil, or alcohol that will dissolve another substance (solid, liquid, or gas) to form a solution.
SPACE SPRAY - A pesticide applied as a fine spray or mist to a confined area.
SPECIFIC WDO INSPECTION REPORTS - Must be completed before the treatment of any structural wood-infesting pest and include information about the structure, alternative methods of control, and a site diagram.
SPORE - The reproductive unit of a fungus; analogous to a plant seed.
SPOT TREATMENT - Application to small areas.
SPRAY DEPOSIT - The amount of pesticide chemical that remains on a sprayed surface after the droplets have dried.
SPREADER - An adjuvant used to enhance the spread of a pesticide over a treated surface, thus increasing the area that a given volume of liquid will cover.
STICKER - An adjuvant used to improve pesticide spray droplet adherence to a plant, animal, or other treated surface.
STOMACH POISON - A pesticide that must be eaten by an animal in order to be effective; it will not kill on contact.
STRUCTURAL PEST INSPECTOR - A type of applicator certification or license for an individual who inspects a structure for wood-destroying organisms or conditions conducive to their development.
STRUCTURAL PESTS - Pests that attack and destroy buildings and other structures, clothing, stored food, and manufactured/processed goods. Examples are termites, cockroaches, clothes moths, rats, and dry-rot fungi.
SUMMER ANNUAL - Plants that germinate in the spring or summer and complete their life cycle within one year.
SURFACTANT - A component of many adjuvants that improves the spreading, dispersing, and/or wetting properties of a pesticide mixture.
SUSCEPTIBLE - 1) A plant, animal, or site affected by a pest. 2) Pest populations that can be controlled by pesticides.
SUSPENSION - A pesticide mixture consisting of fine particles dispersed or floating in a liquid, usually water or oil. Wettable powders in water is an example.
SWATH - The width of the area covered by one sweep of an airplane, ground sprayer, spreader, or duster.
SYNERGISM - When the effect of two or more pesticides applied together is greater than the sum of the individual pesticides applied separately. For example; Pesticide X kills 40 percent of an insect population, Pesticide Y kills 20 percent, but together they kill 95 percent.
SYSTEMIC PESTICIDE - A chemical absorbed and translocated within a plant or animal.
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TANK MIX - The mixture of pesticides (and possibly fertilizers) in a spray tank.
TARGET - The plants, animals, structures, areas, or pests at which the pesticide or other control method is directed.
TECHNICAL MATERIAL - The pesticide’s active ingredient in pure form, as it is manufactured by a chemical company. During manufacturing, it is combined with inert ingredients or additives in formulations such as wettable powders, dusts, emulsifiable concentrates, or granules.
TEMPERATURE INVERSION - When air at ground level is cooler than the air above it, and there is little or no vertical air movement.
TERATOGENIC - The property of a substance or agent able to produce abnormalities or defects in living human or animal embryos and fetuses. These defects are not usually inheritable.
TERMITICIDE - An insecticide used to control termites.
THICKENER - A drift control adjuvant such as cellulose or gel used to promote a greater proportion of large droplets in a spray mixture.
TOLERANCE - A regulation that establishes the maximum amount of pesticide residue (active ingredient or certain metabolites) that may legally remain in or on a raw agricultural commodity (food or feed product) at harvest or slaughter.
TOLERANT - The property of organisms, including pests, to withstand a certain degree of stress, such as pest attack, poor weather, or pesticides.
TOPICAL ACUTE EFFECTS - A result of either the irritant properties of a chemical in a pesticide formulation or an allergic response by the victim. Dermatitis is the most common example.
TOXIC - Poisonous to living organisms.
TOXICANT - A poisonous substance such as the active ingredient in a pesticide formulation.
TOXICITY - The degree or extent that a chemical or substance is poisonous.
TOXIN - A naturally-occurring poison produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms. Examples are the venom produced by black widow spiders and rattlesnakes.
TRANSLOCATION - The movement of materials within a plant or animal from the site of entry. A systemic pesticide is translocated.
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ULTRA LOW VOLUME (ULV) - Sprays applied at 0.5 gallon or less per acre, or as undiluted (i.e., concentrated, full-strength) formulation.
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VAPOR PRESSURE - The property that causes a chemical to evaporate. The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the chemical or faster it will evaporate.
VECTOR - An animal (insect, nematode, mite) or plant (dodder) that can carry and transmit a pathogen from one host to another.
VERTEBRATE - An animal characterized by a segmented backbone or spinal column.
VIRUS - Ultramicroscopic parasites composed of proteins. Viruses can only multiply in living tissues and cause many animal and plant diseases.
VOLATILITY, VOLATILIZATION - The change of a substance from a liquid or solid state to a gas at ordinary temperatures when exposed to air.
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WATER DISPERSIBLE GRANULE - A dry, granular pesticide formulation that forms a suspension in water.
WATER TABLE - The upper level of the water-saturated zone in the ground.
WDO - Wood-destroying organism.
WEED - An unwanted plant.
WETTABLE POWDER - A dry pesticide formulation in powder form that forms a suspension when added to water.
WETTING AGENT - An adjuvant used to reduce the surface tension between a liquid and contact surface for more thorough coverage.
WINTER ANNUAL - Plants that germinate in the fall and complete their life cycle within one year.
WORKERS - Employees who do not handle any pesticide products or machinery with residues. Examples are weeders, irrigators, pruners, and harvesters.
WSDA - Washington State Department of Agriculture. A regulatory agency that administers the Washington Pesticide Application Act of 1961 and the Washington Pesticide Control Act of 1971.
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